A boundary fence (also known as a division or partition fence) is that which runs along a property boundary line separating two lots or parcels and used by adjoining landowners.
While neither the District of Columbia nor Maryland have specific laws defining or regulating boundary fences, Virginia law (Va. Code Ann. §55-317) makes boundary fences an obligation of adjoining landowners.
Nonetheless, most properties in the Washington DC metro area have boundary fences.
When it comes to reviewing the location drawing (survey) at the real estate closing, the most common question I get from homebuyers is “Who owns it?”
The simple answer: She who uses it.
That is, the common law provides that, unless agreed otherwise, boundary line fences are owned by both property owners when both owners are using the fence. A fence built and used solely by the builder of the fence is owned by the builder of the fence and is not a boundary line fence at all. It only becomes a boundary line fence when both property owners use the fence.
So what does “use” of a fence mean? Well, here is where I could really make your head pop off if I were to present all the definitions of “use” as defined among and across the jurisprudential landscape. I’ll save you the pain and give it to you in its most basic form.
If you as a landowner join, connect, or “hook-up” to a fence built on the boundary by your neighbor to create some form of enclosure to your property, you are said to be “using” this fence, and thus, it becomes a “boundary line fence.”
As noted above, a boundary line fence is owned by both property owners and thus, you are now a co-owner of the fence. In this instance, with the exception of local regulations, you probably owe your neighbor some money but we’ll save this discussion for later.
In most instances, adjoining landowners take ownership to their respective properties with existing fences built and “used” by prior owners. In this case, the adjoining landowners are co-owners of the boundary line fence and share the duty of maintenance.
If you have questions beyond mere ownership of a fence, you can visit various government websites for more information on building and permitting, including the Maryland municipal codes, DC’s Department of Consumer & Regulatory affairs permits page and the Virginia municipal codes.